Author: The Test Tribe Team

The Test Tribe
How to Handle Multiple Windows in Selenium?

Selenium WebDriver has emerged as a potent tool for web automation, allowing testers and developers to simulate user interactions with web applications. However, the web environment isn’t always straightforward. 

Modern web applications often open multiple browser windows or tabs, presenting a challenge when automating tests. Understanding how to handle these multiple windows within Selenium WebDriver is crucial for effective automation.

What is a Window in Selenium?

In Selenium, a window signifies an active instance of a web browser that users can interact with. Think of it as a portal that displays a web page or application. 

Each window encapsulates a distinct browsing context, allowing users to navigate various web pages or applications concurrently.

These windows are pivotal when conducting automated tests on web applications, especially when encountering scenarios that involve the opening of multiple windows or tabs. 

Whether it’s launching new pages or dealing with pop-up windows, understanding and managing these instances are crucial for seamless test automation in Selenium.

Each window possesses its own set of elements, such as buttons, text fields, or links, and managing these elements across multiple windows becomes essential for validating and executing test scripts accurately.

The ability to identify, switch between, and manipulate these windows using Selenium WebDriver methods like getWindowHandles() and switchTo().window() is fundamental for testers and developers to navigate through complex web scenarios during automation. 

This mastery ensures efficient handling of multiple windows, enabling comprehensive testing of diverse web applications or functionalities.

Identifying Parent and Child Windows

In the realm of window handling in Selenium, distinguishing between parent and child windows holds paramount importance.

  • Parent Window

This window marks the inception point, representing the initially opened browser window. It serves as the starting point for the user’s interaction with the web application.

  • Child Windows

These windows are offspring spawned by the parent window. They are created either as a result of user-triggered interactions, such as clicking links, buttons, or performing actions on the web application, or they might be generated by the parent window’s automated processes during testing.

Identifying and understanding this parent-child relationship is pivotal for effective window management during test automation. 

Child windows often inherit properties or functionalities from their parent, and maintaining a clear distinction between them enables testers and developers to precisely navigate and manipulate these windows as required.

In Selenium, mechanisms like getWindowHandles() aid in capturing the handles of both parent and child windows, empowering testers to seamlessly switch between these windows, perform actions, and validate functionalities across different browsing contexts. 

This distinction ensures the accurate execution of test scripts across multiple windows, thereby enhancing the robustness and reliability of automated tests.

Why Handle Multiple Windows in Selenium?

We’ll dive into why handling multiple windows in Selenium is essential for seamless automation:

User Interaction Scenarios:

Automated scenarios often involve user actions like clicking links or buttons that trigger the opening of new windows or tabs within a web application.

Automation scripts must accurately handle these new windows to maintain test flow.

Validation Across Windows:

Testing scenarios may require validation or verification across multiple windows or tabs simultaneously.

Verifying content, functionalities, or interactions across different browsing contexts is essential for comprehensive testing.

Indispensable Skill in Selenium:

Window handling is a critical skill in Selenium automation to manage and interact with multiple browsing contexts effectively.

Mastery of window handling methods ensures accurate execution of automated scripts across various windows, enhancing the reliability and completeness of tests.

Enhanced Test Coverage:

Proficiency in window handling allows testers to navigate through complex web scenarios, interact with elements, and validate content across multiple windows or tabs.

Comprehensive test coverage across different browsing contexts ensures robust and reliable automation of diverse web application functionalities.

Key to Effective Testing:

Expertise in handling multiple windows using Selenium WebDriver methods significantly contributes to the effectiveness and accuracy of automated testing processes.

Mastering this skill enables seamless execution of test scripts, ensuring accurate simulation of user interactions and validations within the automation framework.

Understanding Window Handles in Selenium

In Selenium, a window handle is a unique identifier assigned by the WebDriver to each window it handles. Window handles are alphanumeric strings that differentiate between multiple windows.

Methods for Window Handling in Selenium

Selenium provides several methods to manage multiple windows:

1. getWindowHandles()

This method retrieves all available window handles, allowing navigation between them.

2. switchTo().window()

It enables switching between different windows using their respective handles.

3. getWindowHandle()

This method fetches the handle of the current window, aiding in setting the focus back to the parent window.

Handling Child Windows in Selenium

To handle child windows specifically:

  • Capture the handles of both the parent and child windows.
  • Use getWindowHandles() to retrieve all handles.
  • Iterate through the handles to switch to the desired window.

Handling Multiple Windows: Step-by-Step

1. Switching Between Windows

When handling multiple windows in Selenium, the process involves navigating between different browsing contexts. Here’s how it’s done:

  • Identify Window Handles: Utilize getWindowHandles() method to retrieve all available window handles.
  • Iterate and Switch: Iterate through these handles, and using switchTo().window(), direct the WebDriver to the desired window by specifying its handle. This action sets the focus of WebDriver to the selected window, allowing operations within that conte

2. Handling Child Windows

Child windows, spawned from the parent window, require specific attention during automation. To handle them:

  • Utilize Similar Methods: The process remains similar to switching between windows, but with precise identification of the child window handle obtained from the parent’s action.
  • Switch to Child Window: Capture the child window handle and use switchTo().window() to direct the WebDriver to operate within this specific child window.

3. Returning to the Parent Window

Maintaining a reference to the parent window and switching back to it is crucial for maintaining the test flow. Here’s how it’s accomplished:

  • Store Parent Window Handle: Prior to switching to any other windows, save the handle of the parent window using getWindowHandle().
  • Switch Back to Parent: Whenever needed, use switchTo().window() with the stored parent window handle to return focus and operation to the parent window.

4. Closing All Windows

Cleaning up after tests involves closing opened windows. To ensure a clean environment:

  • Iterate Through Handles: Exclude the parent window handle and loop through all other window handles obtained using getWindowHandles().
  • Close Each Window: Use driver.close() within the loop to close each window, except the parent, thus effectively ending the browsing contexts opened during the test.

Example of Handling Multiple Windows Using Window Handles

Let’s consider an example where clicking a button opens a new window:

Explanation of steps:

// Navigate to the specified web page

// Preserve the parent window's handle
String parentWindowHandle = driver.getWindowHandle();

// Simulate an action, triggering a new window (e.g., button click)
WebElement newWindowButton = driver.findElement("newWindowButton"));;

// Obtain all window handles available
Set<String> allWindowHandles = driver.getWindowHandles();

// Iterate through the handles to navigate to the new window
for (String handle : allWindowHandles) {
    // Confirm if the handle does not match the parent window
    if (!handle.equals(parentWindowHandle)) {
        // Switch to the new window context

        // Perform actions within the new window
        // For instance, interact with elements in the new window
        WebElement elementInNewWindow = driver.findElement("elementId"));
        elementInNewWindow.sendKeys("Interacting with the new window");

        // Switch back to the parent window context

        // Perform actions within the parent window
        // For example, interact with elements in the parent window
        WebElement elementInParentWindow = driver.findElement("parentElementId"));;

        // Close all windows except the parent window
        for (String windowHandle : allWindowHandles) {
            // Ensure the handle is not the parent window
            if (!windowHandle.equals(parentWindowHandle)) {
                // Switch to the window and close it
        break; // Terminate loop after managing the necessary windows
  • Navigation and Storing Parent Window Handle:

Navigate to the web page and store the handle of the initially opened parent window.

  • Simulating Action for New Window:

Simulate an action, such as clicking a button (newWindowButton), that triggers the opening of a new window.

  • Switching to New Window:

Retrieve all window handles and switch to the new window using the handle distinct from the parent window.

Perform actions specific to the new window.

  • Switching Back to Parent Window:

After interacting with the new window, switch back to the parent window using the stored parent window handle.

Perform actions specific to the parent window.

  • Closing All Windows Except Parent:

Iterate through all window handles.

Close each window except the parent window to ensure a clean environment post-testing.

This example demonstrates the comprehensive handling of multiple windows in Selenium, including switching between windows, interacting with elements, and managing different browsing contexts effectively during automated testing.

To conclude

Mastering window handling in Selenium WebDriver is crucial for robust and efficient test automation. 

Understanding the concepts of window handles, identifying parent and child windows, and utilizing the appropriate methods for switching between windows ensures successful automation of complex web scenarios. 

Practice and proficiency in handling multiple windows empower testers and developers to create more comprehensive and reliable automated tests in Selenium WebDriver.

Introduction to TestNG for Complete Beginners

Welcome to this quick tutorial on TestNG! In the world of software testing, making sure apps work well is super important. TestNG, short for “Test Next Generation,” is a powerful tool made specifically for Java apps. This guide is for beginners and dives into TestNG’s many features, how it’s essential in testing software, and how it helps make testing easier.

TestNG was created to be better than older tools like JUnit, giving us a smarter and more flexible way to test. It’s a big deal in testing because it helps us organize and run tests in a better way. 

We’ll explore TestNG’s features that make testing smoother and improve the quality of the code. From testing different parts of apps to making cool reports, TestNG helps us find and fix problems in our apps, making sure they work great for everyone.

Throughout this guide, we’ll explore TestNG’s cool features and learn how it makes testing easier and faster. Whether you’re just starting out in testing or want to boost your skills, TestNG is a great tool to help you test apps more effectively.

What is TestNG?

TestNG, an advanced testing framework tailored for Java applications, redefines software testing by offering unparalleled flexibility, robustness, and user-friendliness. 

Designed to overcome limitations seen in traditional frameworks like JUnit, TestNG presents developers and testers with a comprehensive suite of functionalities. 

This empowers them to conduct efficient, meticulous testing while enhancing the overall quality and reliability of their Java-based applications.

Significance in Software Testing

TestNG holds significant importance in software testing due to several key factors:

  • Annotations-Based Testing: 

TestNG leverages annotations to define test methods, allowing developers to easily mark methods as test cases, set up preconditions, and manage test dependencies. This structured approach streamlines test execution and enhances code readability.

  • Flexible Configuration: 

It offers flexible configuration options, enabling testers to prioritize test execution, group tests, and define dependencies between test methods or classes. This flexibility facilitates comprehensive test coverage and efficient test execution.

  • Advanced Assertions: 

TestNG provides a wide range of built-in assertions, making it easier to perform validations and verifications. These assertions ensure that the expected outcomes match the actual results, helping to identify bugs or errors efficiently.

Features and Functionalities of TestNG:

TestNG stands as a robust testing framework, empowering test automation with a diverse array of features and functionalities:

  • Data-Driven Testing: 

TestNG excels in supporting data-driven testing, enabling the execution of test cases with multiple datasets. Through the @DataProvider annotation, diverse data sets effortlessly flow into test methods, enhancing test coverage and versatility.

  • Parameterization Support: 

Leveraging the @Parameters annotation, TestNG facilitates parameterization, granting the flexibility to pass parameter values from the testng.xml file to test logic. This customization ensures adaptable and configurable test cases.

  • Parallel Testing: 

Notably, TestNG’s support for parallel testing is a game-changer, allowing concurrent execution of test cases. This feature significantly slashes test execution time, optimizing the efficiency of the testing process.

  • Test Case Grouping: 

With TestNG, sophisticated grouping of test methods is achievable. The framework allows meticulous categorization of methods into specific groups, enabling the inclusion or exclusion of designated groups during test runs without necessitating recompilation.

  • HTML Reports and Customization: 

Following test execution, TestNG automatically generates detailed HTML reports showcasing test results in a tabular format. These reports are customizable using listeners, ensuring tailored reporting formats aligned with project-specific requirements.

  • Annotations: 

TestNG boasts an extensive suite of annotations that govern test case execution flow. These annotations facilitate diverse functionalities such as parallel testing, dependent method testing, and test case prioritization, offering substantial control over program execution.

  • Integration with CI/CD Tools: 

Through TestNG’s test suite grouping, it becomes feasible to create distinct suites like sanity, smoke, or regression. Integration with Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) tools like Jenkins becomes seamless, enabling effortless triggering and integration of testing within CI/CD pipelines.

In essence, TestNG’s comprehensive feature set, spanning from data-driven and parallel testing to customizable reporting and seamless CI/CD integration, positions it as an indispensable tool for robust and efficient test automation.

How These Features Streamline Testing and Improve Code Quality

TestNG’s features play a pivotal role in optimizing testing processes and elevating code quality, supported by various sources:

  • Elevating Quality and Maintainability: 

Implementing testing modules and adhering to test-driven development practices significantly enhances code quality, augments maintainability, and diminishes the likelihood of errors. By conscientiously following coding standards and integrating testing modules, organizations can fortify the reliability, security, and efficiency of their products.

  • Efficiency in Testing: 

Efficient testing strategies encompass meticulous planning, comprehending code alterations, and identifying features that don’t necessitate exhaustive testing environments. This approach amplifies the effectiveness of test plans, fosters collaboration with developers, and optimizes testing through parallel execution, enhancing efficiency.

  • Optimization of Testing Methods: 

Test-driven development (TDD) serves as a valuable tool in refining testing methodologies, ensuring code compliance with requirements, adherence to design principles, and evasion of defects. Furthermore, a continuous pursuit of learning and improvement via training sessions, workshops, and innovative tools bolsters testing proficiency, confidence, and innovation.

  • Continuous Testing for Superior Software Quality: 

Embracing continuous testing practices guarantees that software attains superior quality benchmarks and aligns with customer expectations. Well-managed test environments streamline the testing workflow, curtail expenses, and bolster software quality in the realm of web development.

Setup and Installation of TestNG

Discover a step-by-step guide to setup and installation as we walk you through the process below.

  • Prerequisites:

Ensure that you have Eclipse IDE installed on your system before proceeding with the TestNG installation.

image 10

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  • Installing TestNG using the Eclipse Marketplace:

Open Eclipse: Launch the Eclipse IDE that you have installed on your system.

  • Access the Eclipse Marketplace:

Navigate to the “Help” menu at the top of the Eclipse window.

From the dropdown menu, select “Eclipse Marketplace.”

image 9
  • Search for TestNG:

In the Eclipse Marketplace dialog box, you’ll find a search bar. Type “TestNG” in the search box and press Enter or click on the “Go” button.

  • Locate TestNG Plugin:

The search results will display the TestNG plugin. Click on the “Install” button next to the TestNG plugin listing.

  • Select Features:

A “Confirm Selected Features” window will appear, presenting checkboxes for TestNG for Eclipse, TestNG (required), and TestNG M2E (Maven) Integration (Optional). Ensure all checkboxes are selected.

Click on the “Confirm” button to proceed.

  • Accept License Agreement:

When prompted with the license agreement, select “I agree to the terms” and then click on the “Finish” button.

  • Installation Progress:

The installation progress will be displayed at the bottom status bar of Eclipse, indicating the percentage of completion.

  • Trust the Content:

You might encounter a Trust window displaying Unsigned Content.

Check the box that says “Unsigned n/a,” then proceed by clicking on the “Trust Selected” button..

  • Restart Eclipse:

After a successful installation, you’ll see a prompt to restart Eclipse. Click on the “Restart Now” button to apply the changes.

Writing Tests with TestNG

Let’s explore how TestNG uses annotations to create, organize, and validate your tests effectively.

1. Understanding Test Annotations:

TestNG uses special labels called “annotations” to tell the computer how to run your tests.

@Test Annotation: Think of this as a flag that says, “Hey, this is a test” You put it on top of a method to tell TestNG it’s a test case.

2. Creating Test Cases:

Using @Test: When you write a method and add @Test on top, you’re making a test. Inside that method, you put the things you want to test.


import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class TestNGExample {
    public void testAddition() {
        int a = 5;
        int b = 10;
        int result = a + b;
        // Check if the addition gives the expected result
        assert result == 15 : “Addition failed!”;

3. Checking Results with Assertions:

TestNG helps you check if your tests pass or fail by using “assertions.” It’s like saying, “Hey computer, make sure this is true!”


import org.testng.Assert;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class TestNGExample {
    public void testAddition() {
        int a = 5;
        int b = 10;
        int result = a + b;
        // Checking if the addition result is what we expect
        Assert.assertEquals(result, 15, “Addition failed!”);

4. Grouping Tests for Organization:

Grouping with @Test(groups = “group_name”): You can group similar tests together. It’s like putting them in folders to make them easier to manage.


import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class TestNGExample {
    @Test(groups = “math”)
    public void testAddition() {
        // Test for adding numbers

    @Test(groups = “math”)
    public void testSubtraction() {
        // Test for subtracting numbers

    @Test(groups = “string”)
    public void testStringConcatenation() {
        // Test for joining strings

5. Setup and Cleanup Actions:

@BeforeMethod and @AfterMethod Annotations: These help you set up things you need before your test and clean up afterward.


import org.testng.annotations.BeforeMethod;
import org.testng.annotations.AfterMethod;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class TestNGExample {
    public void setUp() {
        // Actions to prepare before each test

    public void tearDown() {
        // Actions to clean up after each test

    public void testMethod1() {
        // Test case 1

    public void testMethod2() {
        // Test case 2

Using these annotations in TestNG helps organize your tests, check if they work as expected, and set up or clean up things before and after each test. It makes testing your Java programs much easier.

TestNG Reports and Outputs

1. Why TestNG Reports Matter:

TestNG automatically creates reports after running tests. These reports help you understand how your tests went- what worked well and what didn’t.

Reports are like scorecards that show which tests passed, which failed, and how much time each test took. They help you spot problems in your code and see if everything is working as expected.

2. Types of TestNG Reports:

HTML Reports: These reports are like web pages that you can open in a web browser. They’re user-friendly, colorful, and show a summary of your tests, including details like pass/fail status, time taken, and error messages.

XML Reports: XML reports are more detailed and machine-readable. They contain in-depth information about each test, including stack traces for failures, test methods, and test suite details.

3. Interpreting TestNG Reports:

HTML Reports Interpretation: Open the HTML report in a web browser. Look for sections showing passed tests in green and failed tests in red. You’ll see details like test names, timings, and any error messages.

XML Reports Interpretation: While XML reports are less user-friendly, they contain detailed information. They are often used for automated processing. You can use tools or scripts to read and process XML reports to extract specific information needed for analysis.

4. Benefits of TestNG Reports:

Insight into Test Performance: Reports show you how long each test took to run. If some tests are taking too long, it might indicate performance issues.

Debugging Failures: When a test fails, reports provide details about why it failed. They show error messages and stack traces, helping you identify and fix issues in your code.

Overall Analysis: Reports summarize the overall health of your tests. They provide a quick overview of test success rates and areas needing attention, guiding improvements in your codebase.

Best Practices and Tips for Using TestNG

TestNG stands out as a robust testing framework, offering a host of features aimed at streamlining testing processes and elevating code quality. To harness TestNG’s full potential, adopting best practices is crucial. Here’s a guide on leveraging TestNG effectively:

  • Harness TestNG Annotations:

Make the most of TestNG’s array of annotations—@Test, @BeforeMethod, @AfterMethod, and @DataProvider. These annotations provide flexibility and control over how your tests run, ensuring smoother execution.

  • Data-Driven Testing:

Embrace TestNG’s support for data-driven testing using @DataProvider. This feature empowers you to run tests with multiple datasets, amplifying test coverage and efficacy.

  • Parameterization Ease:

Leverage TestNG’s @Parameters to pass values to test logic from the testng.xml file. This simplifies test configuration and fosters reusability.

  • Test Case Organization:

Group and prioritize test cases based on functionality, priority, or regression. This strategy enables the creation of distinct test suites (like sanity, smoke, regression), easily integrable with CI/CD tools such as Jenkins.

  • Tailored Test Reports:

Customize TestNG’s HTML reports via listeners. Tailoring report formats to project specifics delivers invaluable insights into test outcomes, aiding in effective analysis.

  • Integration with CI/CD:

Seamlessly integrate TestNG with CI/CD tools like Jenkins. This integration automates testing, ensuring smooth incorporation into the software development lifecycle.

  • Explore TestNG’s Flexibility:

Dive into TestNG’s flexibility, utilizing features for running tests with multiple datasets and conducting parallel testing. This significantly cuts down test execution time, boosting testing efficiency.

  • Continuous Learning and Growth:

Stay updated with TestNG’s latest features and best practices. Continuous learning through tutorials, webinars, and community resources enhances testing skills and fosters creativity in testing approaches.

Real-world Applications

TestNG, a Java-based open-source test automation framework, finds extensive application in real-world software development projects, offering numerous benefits such as improved test organization, faster test execution, and enhanced code quality. Here are examples and scenarios where TestNG can be applied, along with the associated benefits:

  • Data-Driven Testing

Example: Employing data-driven testing in an e-commerce platform to validate user registrations using various sets of user data.

Benefits: Enhanced test coverage, efficient validation of diverse user scenarios, and increased code reusability.

  • Parallel Testing

Example: Executing parallel tests for a web application to verify its functionalities simultaneously across multiple browsers.

Benefits: Speedier test execution, reduced overall testing duration, and heightened testing efficiency, particularly for cross-browser compatibility checks.

  • Test Case Grouping and Prioritization

Example: Grouping and prioritizing test cases for a banking application, segregating them into sanity, smoke, and regression test suites.

Benefits: Improved test organization, streamlined management of test suites, and seamless integration with CI/CD tools like Jenkins for automated triggering.

  • Customized Test Reports

Example: Generating tailored HTML reports for a healthcare application’s test suite to offer comprehensive insights into test outcomes.

Benefits: Enhanced visibility into test results, better analysis of outcomes, and improved collaboration among development and testing teams.

  • Integration with Selenium

Example: Integrating TestNG with Selenium for automated functional testing of a travel booking website.

Benefits: Harnessing TestNG’s potent annotations and features to craft robust and maintainable test scripts, leading to heightened code quality and reliability.

Troubleshooting Tips for TestNG Beginners

  • Setting Up TestNG in Eclipse:

If you face hurdles setting up TestNG in Eclipse, double-check the installation steps. Ensure the TestNG plugin is correctly installed in Eclipse.

  • Running TestNG Tests:

If you encounter problems executing TestNG tests, verify that your test methods are appropriately annotated with @Test. Also, confirm that the testng.xml file is accurately configured, including the desired test classes and methods for execution.

  • Understanding TestNG Annotations:

For beginners grappling with TestNG annotations like @Test, @BeforeMethod, or @AfterMethod, seek comprehensive tutorials and examples. Understanding these annotations helps control the test execution flow effectively.

  • Generating TestNG Reports:

Issues with generating TestNG reports? Check the reporting format configurations using listeners. TestNG offers customizable HTML reports, providing tabular insights into test outcomes. Ensure the reporting format aligns with your requirements for detailed test result analysis.

  • Integration with Selenium:

When integrating TestNG with Selenium, ensure correct dependencies are added to the project. Verify the inclusion of Selenium WebDriver and Client for Java in the project structure for seamless integration with TestNG.

  • Understanding TestNG Features:

To grasp TestNG features like data-driven testing, parameterization support, and test case grouping, explore comprehensive resources. Understanding these features and their practical applications in testing projects can aid smoother utilization.

To conclude

In today’s software world, making sure our apps work well is super important. TestNG is a cool tool that helps us test our apps better, especially those made with Java. This guide has covered lots about TestNG, from what it is to how to use it for testing and why it’s awesome.

TestNG is a big deal in testing because it lets us organize and run tests in a smarter way. It helps us check if our apps work right and find bugs before they cause trouble. 

By using TestNG, we can test different parts of our apps, like how users sign up or how our apps work on different web browsers, making sure everything runs smoothly.

How to Use TestNG Asserts in Selenium?

TestNG, a widely-used testing framework for Java, offers a way to use assertions. These assertions in TestNG help us compare what we expect to happen with what actually happens during a test. They allow us to determine if a test passed or failed based on specific conditions. In this blog, we’ll explore how TestNG asserts work in conjunction with Selenium for effective validation.

What are Assertions in TestNG?

  • An Assert in Selenium is like a checkmark that confirms if something is true during an automated test.
  • In TestNG, assertions are like detectives, making sure what we expect matches what actually happens.
  • TestNG Asserts act as our checkpoint during a test, helping us see if everything’s going according to plan while the test is running.

Setting Up Your Selenium Project

Before you start using TestNG asserts, you need to set up your Selenium project. Here are the basic steps:

  • Install Selenium: 

You can download the Selenium WebDriver libraries from the official Selenium website. Ensure you have the necessary browser drivers (e.g., ChromeDriver, GeckoDriver) for your chosen browser.

  • Create a Java Project: 

You can use any Java development environment (Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, etc.) to create a Java project.

  • Add Selenium Libraries: 

Include the Selenium WebDriver libraries in your project. You can add them to your project’s build path.

  • Download TestNG: 

You can download and install TestNG as a plugin for your IDE. TestNG is a widely used testing framework for Java, and it simplifies the test case execution process.

  • Create a TestNG Class: 

Create a new class in your project and annotate it with @Test. This annotation signifies that this class contains your test methods.

Types of Assertions in TestNG

There are two types of assertions in TestNG:

  1. Hard Assertions: 

When any assert statement fails, this type of assertion throws an exception immediately and continues with the next test in the test suite. Hard Assertion can be of the following types:

  • assertEquals: 

This is used to check if the expected and actual values in the Selenium WebDriver are the same. When they match, the assertion goes through without any issues. However, if the actual and expected values differ, the assertion fails, causing the test to be marked as unsuccessful..

  • assertNotEquals: 

This is just the opposite of assertEquals.

  • assertNotNull: 

This is used to check if an object is not null.

  • assertNull:

This is used to check if an object is null.

  • assertTrue: 

It examines whether the condition is true or not. If the test case succeeds, it reports as true. However, if the condition is false, it skips the current method and proceeds to the next.

  • assertFalse: 

It verifies if the condition is untrue. If the test case passes, it stops the method and raises an exception.

  1. Soft Assertions: 

Soft assertions are used when we want to execute all the assertions in the test case, even if one of them fails. Soft Assertion can be of the following types:

  • assertAll: 

This is used to verify all the assertions in the test case.

  • assertThat:

This is used to check if the actual value matches the expected value.

How to Use TestNG Asserts with Selenium?

Here is an example of how to use TestNG asserts with Selenium to perform validation:

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.testng.Assert;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class TestNGAsserts {
   public void testNGAsserts() throws Exception {
      WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
      String actualTitle = driver.getTitle();
      String expectedTitle = "Example Domain";
      Assert.assertEquals(actualTitle, expectedTitle);

In the above example, we are verifying that the actual title of the webpage matches the expected title. If the actual title and expected title do not match, then the assertion fails, and the test is marked as failed.

TestNG Annotations

TestNG offers various annotations to manage how your tests run. Here are a few of the commonly used ones:

  • @BeforeTest and @AfterTest: 

These annotations specify methods that run before and after all the test methods in a test suite.

  • @BeforeMethod and @AfterMethod: 

These annotations specify methods that run before and after each test method.

  • @BeforeClass and @AfterClass: 

These annotations specify methods that run before and after all the test methods in a test class.

  • @BeforeSuite and @AfterSuite: 

These annotations specify methods that run before and after all the test methods in the entire test suite.

By using these annotations, you can set up and tear down your test environment as needed.

Best Practices for Using TestNG Asserts with Selenium

When using TestNG asserts with Selenium, it is essential to follow some best practices to ensure that our tests are reliable and maintainable. Here are some best practices for using TestNG asserts with Selenium:

  • Use descriptive test method names: 

Test method names should be descriptive and should indicate what the test is testing. This makes it easier to understand the purpose of the test and to debug issues when they arise.

  • Use assertions to validate expected results: 

Assertions should be used to validate expected results. This ensures that our tests are testing what they are supposed to test and that our application is functioning correctly.

Use try-catch blocks: When using hard assertions, it is essential to use try-catch blocks to catch any exceptions that are thrown. This ensures that our tests do not fail prematurely and that we can continue to execute the remaining tests in the test suite.

  • Use soft assertions when necessary: 

Soft assertions should be used when we want to execute all the assertions in the test case, even if one of them fails. This ensures that we can identify all the issues with our application and that we can fix them before releasing our application to production.

  • Use data-driven testing: 

Data-driven testing is a technique where we use different sets of data to test the same functionality. This ensures that our application is functioning correctly for different input values and that we can identify any issues that arise for specific input values.

To conclude:

In the end, using TestNG asserts with Selenium makes sure your web tests work correctly. It helps you check if things are as expected or not. By following some good practices, like giving clear names to your tests and using assertions for validation, you can make your web applications more reliable. So, with TestNG asserts and Selenium, you’re on the right track for successful web testing.

Guide to Creating A Test Automation Strategy

In the fast-paced world of software development, staying ahead of the competition and ensuring the delivery of high-quality software on time is a constant challenge. Test automation has emerged as a key solution to this problem. By defining a comprehensive test automation strategy, development teams can save time and effort, maintain software quality, improve processes, handle repetitive tasks efficiently, reduce regression testing time, and seamlessly integrate continuous testing into the CI/CD pipeline.

Guide to Creating Your Test Automation Strategy – Julia Pottinger at TestFlix 2020

Define Test Automation Strategy

A test automation strategy is a well-thought-out plan that outlines the approach and guidelines for automating testing processes within your software development lifecycle. This strategy provides a clear roadmap for achieving your testing goals efficiently and effectively. It defines the ‘what,’ ‘how,’ ‘who,’ ‘when,’ and ‘why’ of test automation.

The Goals of Test Automation

Before delving into the specifics of a test automation strategy, it’s essential to understand the overarching goals. These goals guide your decision-making and help you achieve the desired outcomes:

  • Save time and effort while maintaining quality: Automation is about efficiency. It enables you to conduct repetitive tasks quickly and accurately, saving valuable time and effort.
  • Deliver quality software faster: By automating the testing process, you can identify defects early in the development cycle, ensuring that high-quality software is delivered to users faster.
  • Improve process and workflow: Test automation can reveal bottlenecks and inefficiencies in your development process, helping you optimize workflows for better overall performance.
  • Handle large volumes of data and repetitive tasks better: Automation excels at repetitive and data-intensive tasks, ensuring accuracy and reliability in testing.
  • Reduce regression testing time: Frequent code changes necessitate regression testing. Automation allows you to execute these tests quickly and consistently, reducing the time required for this critical process.
  • Close Sprint with test automation in place: Ensure that test automation is an integral part of your sprint cycle, delivering a fully tested product at the end of each sprint.
  • Continuous testing through CI/CD: Automation should seamlessly integrate into your CI/CD pipeline, ensuring that testing is continuous, rapid, and dependable.

Who is Responsible for Test Automation?

A crucial aspect of your test automation strategy is determining who will be responsible for various aspects of automation. The roles involved may include:

  • Developers: Developers can create unit tests to ensure the functionality of individual components or modules.
  • Manual Testers: Manual testers can be involved in creating automated test scripts and running them as part of their testing efforts.
  • Mixture: Often, a combination of developers and manual testers collaborates on test automation efforts.
  • Automation Engineers: These experts specialize in creating and maintaining automation frameworks and scripts.

The allocation of responsibilities will depend on the skills and resources available within your team.

What to Automate?

The ‘what’ in test automation refers to the level of testing and the types of test cases that should be automated. Some common types of tests to consider include:

  • Smoke Tests: Quick, high-level tests that verify basic functionality and the absence of major issues.
  • Regression Tests: Tests that ensure that existing functionality remains intact after code changes.
  • Extensive Tests: Comprehensive tests that cover a wide range of scenarios and use cases.
  • Multiple Configuration Tests: Tests that ensure compatibility across various configurations, such as different browsers, devices, or operating systems.
  • Performance Tests: Tests that assess system performance, including load testing, stress testing, and scalability testing.

Deciding what to automate depends on your project’s specific needs and the goals you want to achieve.

How to Run Automated Tests?

The ‘how’ of test automation involves selecting the right tools, frameworks, and methodologies for running automated tests:

  • Tools: Choose the appropriate automation testing tools that align with your project’s requirements. Popular choices include Selenium, Appium, JUnit, TestNG, and many others.
  • Frameworks: Implement testing frameworks like JUnit, TestNG, or Cucumber, which provide a structured way to organize and execute test scripts.
  • Manual Trigger: In some cases, manual triggering of automated tests is necessary, especially when conducting exploratory testing or verifying new features.
  • Run Locally: Developers and testers can run automated tests on their local environments for quick feedback during development.
  • CI/CD Integration: The ideal scenario is to integrate test automation into your continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipeline. This enables automated tests to run automatically with every code change, ensuring a consistent and reliable testing process.

Where and When to Execute Automated Tests?

The ‘where’ and ‘when’ of automated testing are equally critical aspects of your test automation strategy. Determine:

  • Test Environments: Define the environments where automated tests will be executed. This could include local development environments, staging servers, or production-like environments.
  • Testing Frequency: Establish a testing schedule that aligns with your project’s needs. This may include running tests after each code commit, daily, weekly, or as part of your release process.

To Sum Up

A well-defined test automation strategy is the cornerstone of efficient, high-quality software development. It empowers development teams to save time and effort, deliver better software faster, improve processes, handle repetitive tasks with ease, reduce regression testing time, close sprints successfully, and ensure continuous testing through CI/CD integration. By answering the ‘what,’ ‘how,’ ‘who,’ ‘when,’ and ‘why’ of test automation, you can set your project on the path to success in the dynamic world of software development.

How to Set Up Playwright on macOS?

Playwright is a powerful automation tool that allows you to control web browsers programmatically. In this blog post, we’ll guide you through the process of setting up Playwright on your macOS system, step by step. By the end of this tutorial, you’ll have Playwright installed and ready to use for browser automation and testing.

You can also follow the instructions in the video below to install Playwright on macOS.


Before we start, make sure you have the following prerequisites in place:

  1. Visual Studio Code: You’ll need an integrated development environment (IDE) to work with Playwright, and Visual Studio Code is a great choice. If you haven’t already installed it, it can be downloaded and installed from the official website.
  2. Node.js: Playwright relies on Node.js, so you’ll need to have Node.js installed on your system. There are two methods to install Node.js on macOS – directly downloading it or using Homebrew. In this tutorial, we’ll use Homebrew for simplicity.

Here is the full video on how to install Playwright:

Let’s begin.

Step 1: Install Visual Studio Code

If you already have Visual Studio Code installed, you can skip this step. Otherwise, download and install Visual Studio Code from the official website. Once installed, open it, and you’re ready to proceed.

Playwright Setup for macOS

Step 2: Install Playwright Extension

In Visual Studio Code, you’ll need the Playwright extension to work with Playwright scripts. Follow these steps to install the extension:

  • Click on the “Extensions” icon on the sidebar (it looks like a square with four smaller squares inside).
  • In the search bar at the top, type “Playwright.” You should see an extension named “Playwright” developed by Microsoft.
  • Click the “Install” button next to the Playwright extension.
Playwright Setup for macOS

Visual Studio Code will download and install the Playwright extension for you. Once it’s installed, you’ll be able to create, edit, and run Playwright scripts.

Step 3: Install Node.js using Homebrew

Now, let’s install Node.js using Homebrew:

  1. Open your Terminal. You can find it by searching for “Terminal” in Spotlight or in the “Utilities” folder.
Playwright Setup for macOS

2. To install Node.js using Homebrew, run the following command in the terminal:

brew install node
npm install ts-node
How to Create an Effective Test Plan That Works?

This post is derived from Kristin’s TestFlix 2023 atomic talk on “From Confusion to Clarity: Crafting a Comprehensive Test Plan.”  Kristin Jackvony, a Principal Engineer III, specializes in software testing at Paylocity. Kristin is not only the author of “The Complete Software Tester” but also the creative force behind the “Monday Morning Automation” YouTube show. Additionally, she has designed the LinkedIn Learning course, “Postman Essential Training,” and actively blogs at “Think Like a Tester.”

Here is a video from TestFlix 2023, where Kristin delivers her insights on the topic.

Creating an Effective Test Plan

By the end of this post you will get to know the actionable 10 Steps To Craft An Effective Test Plan For A Complex Feature. Throughout these steps, we will draw upon real-world examples of a lead assignment engine from Kristin’s experiences at her previous workplace. The steps are categorised into two sections: the first five fall under “Research,” and the subsequent five are under “Writing the Test Plan.” 

Part 1: Research

1. Investigate the Use Case

First things first, let’s kick off with step one: investigating the use case. You need to understand why a feature is being added and what problems it’s aiming to solve.

steps to create test plan

In our real-world example, we’re focusing on a feature called the Lead Assignment Engine. This tool was designed to help insurance company managers in assigning new insurance leads to their agents in a way that made sense. It was all about reducing the workload for the managers because the assignments would happen automatically.

2. Read the Acceptance Criteria

Next up, step two: diving into the acceptance criteria. You need to understand the common usage flows with the feature and what should happen even in negative scenarios. For instance, what if a user makes a mistake or if the user is in a zero state?

For the lead assignment engine, we had some acceptance criteria to guide us. Let us share a couple: 

  • If the rules for the Lead Assignment Engine are set up,

and a new lead comes in,

then it gets assigned to the right agent based on the rules.

And here’s an example of negative acceptance criteria:

  • If a new lead comes in,

and it doesn’t match any agent’s rules,

then the manager takes the lead.

3. Conduct Exploratory Testing

Moving on to step three: let’s roll with exploratory testing. We need to get a feel for how the feature behaves while being used. Can we access it from different parts of the application? Can we backtrack if we made a mistake or used the feature incorrectly?

steps to create test plan

For the lead assignment engine, here’s what we found. The UI was exclusively available to admin users – they were the engine masters! Access was limited to a specific menu entry. Admins could easily set up rules for different US states like Massachusetts and Connecticut, along with rules for insurance types and lead percentages. But, and here’s the kicker, they could also set up rules that simply wouldn’t work.

4. Identify Input Points

So, the fourth step is all about spotting where users can enter information and what kinds of input they can provide. Think about it: can they upload photos, record videos, or attach files? These are crucial areas to investigate because they’re often where security vulnerabilities can lurk. Security problems can sometimes be exploited through user inputs.

steps to create test plan

Now, when we dug into the lead assignment engine, we found that Kristin had to enter valid states into the “State” field. As for insurance types, those were chosen from a dropdown menu. That actually made things a bit simpler because users were limited to a predefined list of insurance types. Also, in the “percentage” field, users could type in any whole number, but only if it was less than 100. That’s important because it meant there was validation in place to prevent someone from entering a value greater than 100.

5. Identify Your User Configurations

Moving on to step five, here you want to figure out the different user configurations. You’ve got to understand whether certain features are exclusive to specific users or if they work on particular platforms. Think about which browsers are supported, what mobile operating systems and devices are compatible, and whether the feature requires an internet connection or specific storage requirements.

For our lead assignment engine, when Kristin did some exploratory testing, she found out that only administrators had access to these features. This feature was meant to work on all browsers, but we didn’t have a mobile version, so that was off the table. Internet connectivity was required for setting up and using the feature, and the data needed to be stored in the database.

Part 2: Writing the Plan

Now that you are done with your research and identified all of the information, it’s time to write the plan.

6. Create Happy Path Tests

Now, on to step six. This is where you create happy path tests. Add a test for the most typical user journey, then add a test for other common journeys. And remember to validate that the actions have been saved correctly. It’s not enough just to see that the feature looks like it’s working in the UI. You want to make sure that when you’re saving, it’s really saving to the database.

steps to create test plan

In the case of the lead assignment engine, Kristin’s first test set the engine to sort leads by state. Then she did another test where it was sorted by percentage. These were the most common use cases, and for each test, she made sure the leads ended up with the right person.

7. Add Tests for Acceptance Criteria

Step seven is to add tests for acceptance criteria. So now’s the time when you go back and look at the acceptance criteria that hopefully your product owner has written for the feature, and you’ll probably discover that some of the acceptance criteria have already been covered by the happy path tests that you wrote. But now make sure to add in tests that cover the rest of the acceptance criteria, and remember that the product owner had reasons for including these acceptance criteria. 

Sometimes while looking at acceptance criteria, you might say, “Oh, I don’t think a user would really do that,” but the product owner likely has been talking to customers, and so they might have discovered that customers have encountered this scenario, so make sure you include those acceptance criteria in your tests.

For the lead assignment engine, Kristin tested sorting all agents into Massachusetts and Connecticut, which was a common scenario. Then, she ran a test where she added a lead from New York to see if it would go to the manager. This was actually a negative test mentioned in the acceptance criteria.

8. Create Negative Tests

Moving on to step eight, it’s time to create negative tests. Here, you can do things like, create tests that back out of a step instead of moving forward with the next step. Try pushing the limits of input fields, or attempting to input data that should be disallowed. For instance, try putting letters into a field that should only accept numbers, or upload files that are not allowed.

steps to create test plan

For the lead assignment engine project, Kristin created a new rule and backed out without saving it to make sure that that rule was not applied. She tried to create rules where the agent percentages added up to more than 100%. And then she tried to give an agent a rule with a state of “XX”. So for these scenarios, she made sure that she got an appropriate error message.

9. Create Tests that Isolate One Parameter at a Time

Now, step nine is about creating tests that isolate one parameter at a time. So a lot of times, a complicated feature will have more than one kind of parameter that can be set to various levels. So, if there are a number of different configuration options, create tests that exercise each option individually. This way you can find any hard-to-find bugs, and it’s also a lot easier to discover those bugs when you’re testing these parameters one at a time than if you’re testing everything all at once. 

If something doesn’t go right when you’re testing everything all at once, it can be difficult to tease out exactly what the problem is. So for each configuration option, create a test for the scenario where the option is turned off entirely, and then create tests for all the different settings of the option.

So, in the case of the lead assignment engine, the first thing Kristin did was turn off the lead assignment engine completely and then validate that the manager could manually assign leads. Then, she created testing scenarios just for sorting by state and sorting by percentage. She also created testing scenarios just for sorting by Insurance type, which was another parameter that we had.

10. Create Tests that Use Parameters in Combinations

Finally, step ten involves creating tests that use parameters in combinations because it’s likely that your users will use some of those parameters more than one at a time. So think of all the possible parameter combinations that could be used in the feature, then identify the most likely parameter combinations, and create tests using those combinations. And then finally, create a test that uses every possible parameter all at once, if that’s possible.

steps to create test plan

So, for the lead assignment engine, Kristin created a simple scenario where she was sorting by state and then by percentage. So, for example, we had two agents that would get leads from Massachusetts, but then, of those two agents, one of the agents was assigned to get 75% of the leads, and the other would just get 25%. Then she created a scenario where leads were sorted by percentage first and then by state. 

For example, one could have agents where an agent gets 50% of the leads, but then the two other agents either get the leads from Massachusetts or from Connecticut depending on which agent is from which state. Another option is to create a complicated scenario with 10 different agents, some of whom were sorted by percentage, some of whom were sorted by state, and even some of whom were sorted by Insurance type.

And this sums up how you can create a highly effective test plan. We would like to thank Kristin for delivering the talk and being a long time contributor to The Test Tribe community. Kristin posts actively on socials and her website. you can follow here work by accessing the links below.

Postman Tutorial: A Guide for Complete Beginners

Postman is one of the most sought-after tools when it comes to API testing. Whether you’re new or experienced, this tutorial simplifies API testing using Postman. We’ll cover the basics, explore testing techniques, and showcase implementable skills in this blog.

This blog is derived from Pricilla Bilavendran’s workshop on Postman with The Test Tribe. Pricilla is a Postman Supernova, an instructor at Thrive EdSchool, and a long-time contributor with The Test Tribe. She has one of the most comprehensive course on Postman API testing at Thrive EdSchool.

Below is the full video on API Testing Workshop where she shared her insights on how to make the best out of this tool even as a beginner.

What is Postman?

postman logo

Postman is a platform to build, test, design, modify, and document APIs. It is a simple Graphic User Interface for sending and viewing HTTP requests and responses. 

Postman serves as a bridge between developers and APIs, allowing you to create requests to APIs, inspect responses, and automate workflows with ease. With its user-friendly interface, you can set up test suites and monitor API performance effortlessly. Postman also streamlines collaboration by enabling teams to share and document APIs, making it a central hub for API development. Whether you’re a seasoned developer or just starting, Postman is your go-to companion for API testing and managing APIs with efficiency and precision.

Check this resource on getting started with Postman:

The Building Blocks of Postman and Variables

building blocks of postman

When it comes to simplifying your API (application programming) development process, Postman is a true lifesaver. To help you make the most of this fantastic API testing tool, let’s dive into its fundamental building blocks. In this exploration, we’ll break down these essential blocks in simple terms, so you can harness Postman’s potential with ease.

Workspaces: Think of Workspaces as your digital project folders. They’re like dedicated workspaces where you can organize your API-related work. Whether you’re collaborating with a team or managing your projects solo, Workspaces are your go-to places to keep everything in order.

Collections: Collections are your recipe books for API requests. They help you group related requests together, making it easy to find and use them when needed. Just like a cookbook organizes recipes by categories, Collections keep your API requests neatly organized.

Requests: Requests are the heart of your API (application programming) interactions. They’re like specific orders you place at a restaurant. With Postman, you can create, send, and receive these requests effortlessly. Each request is a unique action you take to get the data or perform an operation you need.

Environments: Environments act as your versatile spice racks. They store variables and values that can be used across different requests. Just as you use common spices in various dishes to add flavor, Environments ensure consistency and flexibility in your API interactions.

In essence, Postman’s building blocks are your toolkit for organizing, executing, and optimizing your API-related tasks. Workspaces provide the space to collaborate, Collections organize your requests, Requests are the actions you take, and Environments add flexibility to your projects. With Postman, you’re all set to simplify API testing and development with confidence.

Variables in Postman

In the world of API testing, efficiency and flexibility are your best friends. Postman understands this need and equips you with a range of variables to make your API testing and development more powerful. These variables play a vital role in customizing your requests, managing data, and maintaining consistency. In this blog, we’ll explore the various types of Postman variables that you can leverage to supercharge your testing efforts.

variables in postman

1. Global Variables

Think of global variables as your Swiss Army knife in Postman. These variables are accessible throughout your entire Postman workspace. They are like constants you can rely on across collections, requests, and environments. Use global variables to store information that remains consistent across your API testing projects.

2. Collection Variables

Collection variables are specific to the collection they belong to. They act like notes you scribble in the margins of a particular recipe in your cookbook. In Postman, you can use collection variables to customize requests and tests within a specific collection, keeping things neatly organized.

3. Environment Variables

Environments are your dynamic workspace in Postman, and environment variables are its building blocks. These variables are scoped to a particular environment, ensuring that your data and configurations remain separate and easily manageable for different use cases. You can adjust these variables based on the environment you’re working in, whether it’s development, testing, or production.

4. Local Variables

Local variables are like post-it notes you stick on your computer screen to remember something while working on a specific task. In Postman, local variables are used within a single request or script. They’re handy for temporary data storage or calculations related to a particular request.

5. Data Variables

Data variables are all about versatility. They allow you to use data from external sources like CSV or JSON files within your requests. This enables you to perform data-driven testing, looping through different inputs, and validating responses with ease. Data variables are the perfect choice when you need to test your API with a variety of scenarios.

Exporting and Importing Collections

In the domain of API development, collaboration stands as a cornerstone. Postman, the versatile tool known for its prowess in streamlining API testing and development, fully recognizes the significance of collaborative efforts.

It empowers you with the ability to easily share your API collections with teammates and integrate them into various workflows. In this blog post, we’ll explore the invaluable process of exporting and importing collections in Postman.

Exporting Collections: Sharing the Wealth

Exporting a collection in Postman is akin to creating a copy of your carefully crafted API requests, tests, and documentation. This copy can then be shared with your team members, partners, or anyone else involved in your project. Here’s how to do it:

  • Open the Postman app and locate the collection you want to export in your workspace.
  • Right-click on the collection and select “Export.”
  • Choose your preferred export format. Postman allows you to export collections in various formats, including JSON, Postman Collection v1, and Postman Collection v2.
  • Select the location where you want to save the exported collection and click “Save.”

Once your collection is exported, you can share it with others via email, a cloud storage service, or by simply sending the exported file. The recipient can then import it into their own Postman workspace, making it easy to collaborate on API projects.

exporting a collection in postman

Importing Collections: Streamlining Integration

Importing a collection is a straightforward process that allows you to quickly integrate shared collections into your own Postman workspace. Here’s how to do it:

  • Launch Postman and select the “Import” button located in the upper left corner.
  • Choose the source from which you want to import the collection. You can import from a file, link, or even directly from your Postman account if you have collections stored there.
  • Select the collection file or enter the link, and click “Import.”

The imported collection will now be available in your workspace, ready for you to explore, test, and use in your API development tasks.

importing collections in postman

Why Export and Import Matters?

The ability to export and import collections in Postman is a game-changer for teams and individuals alike. It fosters collaboration, allowing you to share your hard work with others and benefit from the work of fellow developers and testers. It streamlines the integration of shared resources, making it a breeze to include external collections in your projects.

Creating Tests in Postman

  • To create a test in Postman, follow these simple steps:
  • Open Postman and create or select a request you want to test.
  • Within the request, go to the “Tests” tab.

Here, you can write JavaScript code to define your test. You can use Postman’s built-in snippets or write custom scripts. These scripts can include assertions, which are statements that define the expected behavior of the API response. For instance, you can check if the response status code is 200 (indicating a successful request). Here’s an example:

pm.test(“Response status code is 200”, function () {;

These assertions are the core of your tests, setting conditions that must be met for the test to pass.

Collection Runner

collection runners in postman

The Collection Runner in Postman allows you to run your entire collection or a selected set of requests in a sequence, making it easier to test your APIs in a controlled manner. To access the Collection Runner, click on the “Runner” button in the top left corner of the Postman interface.
In the Collection Runner, you can select the collection you want to run, choose the environment, and set other options such as the number of iterations and the delay between requests. Once you have configured the Collection Runner, click on the “Start Run” button to begin the test execution

Workflow Handling

workflow handling in postman

In the world of API development, handling user workflows can be both vital and intricate. Thankfully, Postman, a robust tool designed for API testing and development, simplifies the process. In this, we’ll dive into how Postman enables you to efficiently manage key user-related tasks, including listing users, creating new ones, and updating user information.

1. Listing Users

  • Craft a request to retrieve a user list.
  • Use the “GET” method and set up tests for data validation.
  • Postman’s user-friendly interface simplifies request creation and test automation.

2. Creating Users

  • Create a “POST” request to add new users.
  • Include user data in the request body.
  • Set up tests to confirm successful creation.

3. Updating Users

  • Develop a “PUT” or “PATCH” request for user updates.
  • Include updated user data and verify the response.
  • Postman’s variable management ensures consistency.

Data Driven Approach

Postman’s data-driven approach allows you to test your APIs with different sets of data, making it easier to validate the behavior of your API under various conditions. You can use variables and data files to achieve data-driven testing in Postman.
To use data files in Postman, you can simply import a CSV or JSON file that contains your test data. 

You can then use the variables in your requests and tests to dynamically substitute the imported data, allowing you to execute multiple test scenarios and automate the validation of your API’s behavior with ease.

Pagination in Postman

Pagination is a technique used to manage large datasets, ensuring that data is delivered in manageable portions or “pages.” It’s a common practice in API design, enabling efficient data retrieval without overloading the server or client.

1. Offset Pagination

Offset pagination is one of the most traditional methods. In this approach, the API client requests data with two parameters: “limit” and “offset.” The “limit” parameter defines the number of records to be retrieved on each page, while the “offset” parameter specifies where in the dataset the page starts. Postman excels in handling offset pagination:

Creating Requests: In Postman, you can easily create requests with the necessary parameters. For offset pagination, you’d set the “limit” and “offset” variables accordingly to control the number of records retrieved and the starting point.

Automating Tests: Postman’s scripting capabilities allow you to automate the testing of each paginated request. You can dynamically update the “offset” variable in your tests to ensure comprehensive validation across all pages.

2. Keyset Pagination

Keyset pagination, also known as “cursor pagination,” is a modern alternative to offset pagination. Instead of relying on numerical offsets, it uses unique identifiers (usually a timestamp or a similar attribute) to mark where the next page should begin. Postman is adept at handling keyset pagination:

Configuring Requests: In Postman, you can configure requests to include keyset parameters. These parameters guide the API on where to start the next page.

Validation: When it comes to testing, Postman allows you to efficiently verify the continuity and accuracy of keyset pagination by using scripts to ensure that the keyset in one page corresponds correctly to the next page.

Mock Servers

mock servers in postman

Mock servers are crucial components of API testing and development, allowing developers to simulate API responses without relying on the actual backend infrastructure. In the Postman API Platform, a mock server is a tool that enables you to make API requests and simulate the corresponding responses. This feature is particularly useful when working with external APIs that may not be available during the development process or when multiple teams are working concurrently, causing potential delays and interruptions


Postman’s monitoring feature is the watchful guardian of your APIs, offering real-time insights to ensure they perform seamlessly. With the ability to create and schedule tests, it empowers you to catch issues early, optimize performance, and make data-driven decisions, all within a user-friendly interface. In the fast-paced world of API testing, Postman’s monitoring is your compass for staying on course and maintaining API reliability.


Documentation is a crucial aspect of API development, as it helps users understand how to interact with your API and leverage its capabilities. In Postman, you can easily create and publish documentation for your APIs, making it a valuable tool for both developers and consumers. Here’s how you can use Postman to create comprehensive API documentation:

Add Descriptions to Your Documentation 

Start by selecting the desired collection or folder in the Collections sidebar. Then, navigate to the Overview tab and enter a description for your API. This description should provide an overview of your API’s functionality and any important details that users need to know.

Publish Your Documentation

Once you have added the necessary descriptions to your documentation, you can publish it to make it accessible to users. Postman allows you to publish your documentation, making it available to people around the world who want to learn how to use your collection or interact with your Public API. This feature is incredibly useful for sharing your API’s capabilities with a wider audience.

View Complete Documentation

To view the complete documentation for an API, select the API in the sidebar and then choose a collection. From there, you can select “View complete documentation” to see the full documentation for your API. This view provides a comprehensive overview of your API’s endpoints, request parameters, and response structures, making it easy for users to understand how to interact with your API.

By following these steps, you can create detailed and user-friendly documentation for your APIs using Postman. This documentation will help developers and consumers understand how to use your API effectively, leading to better integration and adoption of your API within the developer community.


what is newman

Efficiency is the name of the game in API testing, and Newman, the command-line tool from Postman, is your secret weapon. Featured in our blog series “How to Use Postman in API Testing,” Newman revolutionizes your testing approach by enabling you to execute Postman collections via the command line. This opens the door to test automation, CI/CD pipeline integration, and seamless scalability. With Newman, you can effortlessly run collections, generate comprehensive reports, and ensure that your APIs are always performing at their best.

Best Practices for Effective API Testing with Postman

In the world of API testing, success hinges on efficiency and precision. To make the most of Postman for your API testing, consider these 8 best practices:

  • Basic Assertions: Start with fundamental checks like status codes to ensure the API behaves as expected.
  • Parameterization: Use variables to test your API with various inputs, saving time and effort.
  • Dynamic Variables: Employ dynamic variables to capture and reuse data from responses.
  • Variable Names/Scope: Maintain well-organized variables with appropriate scope to avoid confusion.
  • Sad Path Testing: Don’t just test for success; explore error scenarios to ensure robustness.
  • Add Path Testing: Expand your tests systematically to cover different aspects of your API.
  • Adding Descriptions: Document your requests and tests to enhance clarity and collaboration.
  • Output Complex Responses: Extract and validate complex data structures from responses to ensure data integrity. With these practices in place, your API testing in Postman becomes a seamless, efficient, and reliable process.

To Conclude

As you venture into the exciting realm of API testing with Postman, remember that practice makes perfect. These simple yet effective best practices, combined with Postman’s user-friendly features, are your secret weapons for a seamless API testing journey. Embrace these insights, supercharge your testing skills, and unlock the door to more reliable software. Stay tuned for more expert tips and tricks as we continue to unravel the power of Postman.

Want to connect with the author of this workshop? Check out the links below.

TestFlix 2023: A Round-up of the World’s Biggest Virtual Software Testing Conference

After the success of TestFlix 2022, our team was undoubtedly on cloud nine. We celebrated and cheered for achieving our target of bringing over 10,000 registrations from around the world. However, amidst the joy, there was a shared understanding among us—a realization that the target for TestFlix 2023 will be huge and will require a lot more hard work and dedication.

And so, the target for TestFlix 2023 was set—a staggering 15,000 registrations. It was a number that sparked excitement and anticipation within our team, challenging us to raise the bar even further. But that wasn’t just our only target, what we wanted to achieve was 15,000 testing minds under one roof learning together and networking with each other. However, we didn’t stop at just numbers; we set out to reinvigorate the very format of TestFlix.

In 2022, TestFlix had an impressive lineup of 60 speakers, each given 8 to 15 minutes to share their insights and experiences. While it was a fantastic event, we wanted TestFlix 2023 to be an even more immersive and value-packed experience for our audience. To achieve this, we decided to streamline and elevate the format. The speakers’ count was 50, ensuring that their expertise and insights would truly resonate with our audience.

This change allowed our speakers to dive into their subjects, providing a more comprehensive understanding of the latest trends, innovations, and best practices in software testing. It was also done to ensure that TestFlix 2023 provides an enriching learning experience and becomes a global platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and celebrating the vibrant community of software testers.

During the lead-up to the conference, our journey was filled with both challenges and memorable moments. From unexpected hurdles such as the meta ad account misbehaving just when we needed it most, to the monumental task of scouting for speakers who could truly inspire our audience, every day was an adventure. Moreover, the overwhelming love and support you all showered upon us resulted in such a surge in website traffic that it momentarily crashed, but your enthusiasm fueled our resolve. Beyond these, countless other challenges came our way, from ensuring smooth virtual event logistics to managing the marketing intricacies of a free, yet massive, global gathering. But every challenge only strengthened our resolve, and with your unwavering support, we overcame each one, making this conference a testament to the power of perseverance and teamwork.

We would like to Thank BrowserStack who was the Premier Sponsor for TestFlix and is our Annual Sponsor as well for all the community events.

One fascinating thing we noticed this year with TestFlix was a big change in how our team operated. Last year, most of our team members were dedicated to making TestFlix a success. But this year, we saw a significant shift. Only a few team members were fully focused on TestFlix, while others were busy driving things on our other verticals. This shift showed us how much we’ve grown as a team, and become capable of handling many different tasks at once.

TestFlix 2023 Crew


Moving ahead to Day 1 of TestFlix 2023, it was a spectacular kickoff! We had Paras Pundir hosting the opening session where he encouraged all the attendees to strive for continuous learning and praised them for joining the event even on a weekend so they could learn and upskill themselves.

The opening session featured Rahul Verma, who delved into the intriguing topic of “Ichhadhari Data: The ReVoLT Mnemonic.” Rahul’s talk offered attendees an unconventional perspective on variables and data within software testing. He introduced a pluralistic approach to understanding data in both black and white-box testing scenarios, challenging conventional thinking. Through his talk, he encouraged attendees to reevaluate established test design techniques, sparking a fresh perspective on data-driven testing methodologies.

The day continued with a dynamic lineup of speakers who captivated the audience with their insights into trending topics. Ingo Philipp presented his talk, “Professional Testing is One Thing, Selling it, Another,” where attendees discovered valuable strategies for selling testing effectively. Ingo shared tips on designing a balanced tactical and strategic approach, managing expectations, and shaping the testing narrative within organizations, emphasizing its crucial role in software development.

We also had Sidharth Shukla take the stage with his talk, “Essential Skills and Strategies for Shifting from Automation QA to SDET.” Sidharth provided a roadmap for individuals looking to transition into the role of an SDET. He delved into the technology focus required for SDET success, covering essential technologies and tools, as well as the importance of Java programming, data structures, and algorithms proficiency.

As the curtain fell on Day 1, attendees were treated to an enlightening session by Robert Sabourin on the topic “Discovering Lost Test Automation Fundamentals.” Robert emphasized four crucial points: the essence of test automation skills as problem-solving, their independence from specific technologies, their historical roots in digital computing, and the pivotal role testers have played in shaping and advancing technological progress. Robert’s session left the audience with a deeper understanding of the fundamentals of test automation, reminding them of the influence of testers in the world of technology.

TestFlix 2023 (Day 1) - Biggest Virtual Software Testing Conference

We would like to extend our heartfelt thanks to Element34, UiPath, Avo Automation, Autify, and Launchable who were all our Platinum Sponsors for TestFlix 2023 and without them, the conference wouldn’t have been what it was.

We kicked off Day 2 of TestFlix 2023 with James Bach taking center stage to unravel the mysteries surrounding ChatGPT in his talk titled, “ChatGPT Sucks at Testing.” In his presentation, James explored why some individuals believe that ChatGPT can effectively test, shedding light on the misconceptions surrounding its capabilities. He identified and discussed fifteen syndromes that disqualify ChatGPT from being a reliable testing tool, providing attendees with a comprehensive understanding of its limitations. To round off the session, James offered valuable insights into how ChatGPT can still be used safely to assist testers, ensuring that attendees were left with a clear perspective on how to navigate this technology in their testing endeavors.

Continuing the momentum of the day, our audience was treated to a series of engaging talks on trending topics that resonated well. Pricilla Bilavendran’s session, “Mastering the Art of Prompt Engineering: Elevating Your Testing Game,” unveiled the secrets of prompt design with a focus on context incorporation and dynamic adaptation. Attendees gained insight into various types of prompt engineering and delved into advanced techniques, real-world tricks, and best practices that transcend the basics, ultimately learning how to craft efficient prompts by combining multiple techniques.

Following this, Vikas Mittal took the stage with a talk titled, “If someone asks you how testing adds business value, tell them this.” Vikas shared valuable insights on identifying your ally in demonstrating the value of Quality Engineering, aligning testing KPIs with business KPIs, and presenting information compellingly and convincingly. Attendees left equipped with strategies to secure budgets for testing in the upcoming year, realizing the tangible impact of testing on overall business objectives. These talks further enriched our audience’s understanding of the ever-evolving testing landscape.

As Day 2 drew to a close, attendees were treated to a compelling finale delivered by Ajay Balamurugadas in his talk titled “Tester’s Independence Day.” Ajay’s session not only shed light on the pitfalls that testers often encounter but also offered valuable insights into ways to extricate themselves from these traps. He urged testers to take charge of their careers in the dynamic world of software testing. Ajay’s enlightening talk marked a fitting conclusion to a day filled with thought-provoking discussions and left attendees inspired to chart their paths in the testing realm.

TestFlix 2023 (Day 2) - Biggest Virtual Software Testing Conference

Across both exhilarating days of TestFlix, we were delighted to welcome a total of 4,851 enthusiastic attendees eager to soak up knowledge and upskill themselves. What truly warmed our hearts, though, was the remarkable commitment of over 261 attendees who wholeheartedly immersed themselves in the binge of 16+ hours of sessions. This select but resolute group exemplified the unwavering dedication and passion that our community possesses when it comes to continuous learning and upskilling. In fact, the collective pursuit of knowledge resulted in a staggering 7,660,071 minutes of learning, a testament to the insatiable thirst for growth within our community. It’s these very moments that reaffirm our unwavering commitment to our mission.

We would also like to take this opportunity to extend our gratitude to GSPANN, Katalon,, Yethi, PractiTest, TestGuild, and Functionize who were all our Gold Sponsors for TestFlix 2023.

Key Metrics and Milestones for TestFlix 2023

  • 4,851 Attendees
  • Attendees from 101 Countries
  • 7,66,071 Total Learning Minutes
  • Average Event Rating of 4.8/5
  • Average Session Rating of 4.74/5
  • 3,000+ Total Reshares, and
  • 62,04,509 Total Impressions

TestFlix 2023 had some really exciting contests which are as follows:

  • Referral Contest – Participation from over 2100 people and had a prize pool of 80K.
  • Airmeet Leaderboard
    Winner – Khushabu Agrawal
    Winner – Luis Ignacio Chacón Cabrera
    Winner – Sumanta Bhattacharjee
  • Social Contest
    Winner – Mohammed Sayeeduddin Ali Khan
    Winner – Dineshraj Dhanapathy
    Winner – Shikha Pandey

TestFlix 2023 Contest Winners

We are also grateful to QAble for their support for TestFlix 2023 as Silver sponsors.

Let the voices of our attendees speak for themselves. Here are a few testimonials from individuals who joined the TestFlix 2023 virtual conference. Their words capture the essence of the knowledge, and connections that TestFlix 2023 has brought into their lives.

TestFlix 2023 - Biggest Virtual Software Testing Conference

TestFlix 2023 - Biggest Virtual Software Testing Conference

As we wrap up this incredible journey, we want to extend our heartfelt gratitude to the pillars of TestFlix 2023 – our sponsors, our inspiring speakers, and every one of you, our amazing attendees. Without your support, dedication, and active participation, this conference wouldn’t have been the resounding success it has been. Your contributions, whether through expertise, resources, or simply your time and enthusiasm, have ignited our passion for fostering a vibrant community of software testers. We’re deeply thankful to every one of you, your unwavering support drives us to continue our mission of elevating the world of software testing, and we can’t wait to embark on more exciting journeys together in the future. Until then, thank you from the bottom of our hearts for making TestFlix 2023 an unforgettable experience.

Stay Connected with The Test Tribe

Subscribe on YouTube: Catch all the event recordings on our YouTube channel.

Follow us on LinkedIn: Stay updated and engaged with us on LinkedIn.

Join our Discord community: Be part of our active community and stay informed about our latest offerings and initiatives by joining us on Discord.

API Testing Tutorial for Complete Beginners

API (Application Programming Interface) testing is a crucial skill for software professionals. Whether you’re new to testing or an experienced pro, this blog is your go-to resource.

We’ve distilled valuable insights from The Test Tribe’s 4th Virtual Meetup on API Testing with Pricilia into an easy-to-understand blog guide. For the visual learner’s out there, you can watch the complete video below.

Pricilla’s Workshop on API Testing And API Basics from TTT Virtual Meetup

List of API Testing Tutorials to Help You Getting Started

We do multiple events time and again to help testers master their craft. Below are selected API Tutorials that will hel you upskill.

Let’s explore the fundamentals of API testing, discover its various types, and learn best practices that will enhance your testing expertise. In this blog post, we will cover the API testing basics. Let’s dive right in!

What is an API?

API is an acronym, and it stands for Application Programming Interface. API is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building Software Applications. APIs specify how one software program should interact with other software programs. Normally, API facilitates the reusability.

For example:

If a user needs to book a room in Hyatt Regency. The user can directly do it on Hyatt Regency website, or through travel booking websites like MakeMyTrip, Trivago, etc.. So, here the Hyatt Regency develops an API and provides specific(read/write) access to the travel agencies via which users can view/book their hotels.

Common Types of API

Types of API
Types of API Testing

Various types of APIs serve distinct purposes, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. The most prevalent API categories include:

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Open API (Public API):

These APIs are accessible to all developers and users. They typically have minimal authentication and authorization measures and may limit the data they provide. Some open APIs are free, while others require a subscription fee based on usage.

Private API (Internal API):

Intended solely for internal use within an organization, private APIs remain inaccessible to the general public. They often employ stricter authentication and authorization protocols, granting access to an organization’s internal data and systems for its employees or trusted partners.

Partner API:

Partner APIs are shared exclusively between strategic business partners. These APIs are not open to the general public and require specific permissions for access. They facilitate business-to-business activities, often involving the exchange of sensitive data, and typically employ robust authentication, authorization, and security measures.

Understanding the Client-Server Architecture

three tier architecture
Three-Tier Architecture

Client-server architecture in API testing, within the context of a three-tier architecture, involves the interaction between different components for efficient and organized testing. Here’s an overview of this concept:

1. Presentation Tier (Client):

  • In API testing, the client or presentation tier represents the front-end or user interface through which users interact with an application.
  • Testers may simulate user actions and interactions with the client interface, such as making HTTP requests to the API endpoints.
  • The focus is on ensuring that the client can effectively communicate with the API and process the responses.

2. Application Tier (Server):

  • In the context of API testing, the server or application tier is where the API resides.
  • This tier handles incoming requests from clients, processes them, and provides responses.
  • Testers conduct various API tests here, including functional testing to validate the API’s behavior, performance testing to assess its responsiveness under load, and security testing to identify vulnerabilities.

3. Data Tier (Database):

  • In a three-tier architecture, the data tier, or database, stores and manages the application’s data.
  • While API testing primarily focuses on the interaction between the client and server, it’s important to verify that the API correctly accesses and manipulates data in the database.
  • Testers may perform database-related tests, such as data integrity checks and data consistency validation.

What is API Testing?

API testing is a critical process in software testing that focuses on evaluating the functionality, performance, and reliability of an Application Programming Interface (API). It involves testing the API’s endpoints, request-response mechanisms, and data exchanges.

Steps Involved: Process Used in API Testing

api testing process
API Testing Process

Here’s a detailed explanation of the API testing process outlined:

1. Review and Understanding of API Specifications

Begin by thoroughly reviewing the API documentation and specifications. This step ensures that testers have a clear understanding of what the API is designed to do, its endpoints, input parameters, and expected output.

2. Categorize Entities Based on Flow

Categorize the various entities, such as endpoints, methods, and data flows, based on the API’s functionality. This categorization helps in organizing test scenarios effectively.

3. Define the Parameters

Identify and define the parameters required for each API endpoint. Parameters include inputs, headers, query parameters, and authentication details. Ensure that you understand the purpose of each parameter.

4. Learn How to Send Requests for Different Endpoints

Familiarize yourself with the tools and methods for sending requests to the API endpoints. This may involve using API testing tools, command-line tools, or scripting in a programming language.

5. Frame the Test Cases

Create comprehensive test cases for each API endpoint. Test cases should cover various scenarios, including valid and invalid inputs, boundary cases, and edge cases. Define the expected outcomes for each test case.

6. Add Assertions on the Expected Results

Define assertions to validate the API responses. Assertions are criteria that must be met for a test case to pass. They can include checking response status codes, data integrity, and expected values.

7. Test Execution

Execute the test cases against the API endpoints. Ensure that you follow a systematic approach, covering all defined scenarios. This phase involves sending requests, receiving responses, and comparing the actual outcomes to the expected results.

8. Report the Failure

If a test case fails, document the failure with as much detail as possible. Include information about the test environment, input data, and any error messages or unexpected behavior encountered during testing.

Why is API Testing Done?

Why we do API testing?
Why We Do API Testing

In the ever-evolving realm of software development, ensuring the reliability and efficiency of applications has never been more crucial. This is where API testing steps into the spotlight as a game-changer. In this, we explore the compelling reasons why API testing should be an integral part of your testing strategy.

1. Time Efficiency

First and foremost, API testing is a time-saver. Traditional testing methods often involve testing the entire application, which can be time-consuming, especially in complex systems. API testing, on the other hand, allows testers to focus on specific functionalities or endpoints. This targeted approach significantly reduces testing time, allowing for quicker development cycles and faster time-to-market.

2. Cost Reduction

In the world of software development, time is money. By accelerating the testing process and streamlining it with API testing, you’re effectively reducing testing costs. With fewer resources required for testing, your organization can allocate resources more efficiently and effectively, ultimately saving valuable budgetary resources.

3. Language Independence

API testing breaks down language barriers. Unlike some testing methods that depend on specific programming languages or technologies, API testing is language-independent. This means you can test APIs built with different technologies or languages without the need for a deep understanding of each language. This flexibility is a significant advantage in today’s multilingual software landscape.

4. Core Functionality Testing

At the heart of every software application lies its core functionality. API testing specializes in scrutinizing this essential aspect. It allows you to dive deep into the core of your application, testing how its various components interact and ensuring that they perform as expected. This pinpoint accuracy in testing core functions enhances the overall quality of your software.

5. Risk Mitigation

Software development inherently carries risks. API testing acts as a risk mitigation tool. By thoroughly testing APIs before integrating them into the application, you can identify and address potential issues and vulnerabilities early in the development cycle. This proactive approach reduces the likelihood of critical failures in the production environment, ultimately safeguarding your system’s integrity.

Types of API Testing

Types of API Testing
Types of API Testing

APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) are the backbone of modern software, enabling seamless communication between applications and services. To ensure that APIs perform flawlessly and securely, API testing comes into play. Let’s take a closer look at the various types of API testing and their distinct roles in the software testing ecosystem.

1. Validational API Testing

Validational API testing, also known as Schema Testing, focuses on verifying that the API responses adhere to the expected data format and structure. This type of testing ensures that the data exchanged between the API and the application is correctly formatted, preventing potential data-related issues.

2. Functional API Testing

Functional API testing is all about functionality. It verifies whether the API functions as intended by testing its various endpoints and methods. Testers create test cases to assess the API’s behavior, input validation, and output correctness. This type of testing is critical for confirming that the API delivers the expected results under various scenarios.

3. Security API Testing

In an age where cybersecurity is paramount, Security API Testing is indispensable. It involves scrutinizing the API for vulnerabilities and security flaws. This testing type assesses the API’s ability to protect sensitive data, prevent unauthorized access, and resist common security threats like SQL injection or cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks.

4. Load API Testing

Load API testing assesses how well the API performs under different levels of load and stress. It helps determine the API’s capacity to handle concurrent requests and large volumes of data. By simulating heavy loads, testers can identify performance bottlenecks and ensure the API remains responsive and reliable in real-world scenarios.

5. Integration API Testing

Integration API testing evaluates how well the API interacts with other systems and services within an application’s ecosystem. It ensures seamless communication between various components, detecting integration issues that could disrupt the overall functionality of the application.

6. Documentation API Testing

API documentation is the user manual for developers and users who interact with your API. Documentation API testing validates that the documentation accurately represents the API’s behavior. It confirms that developers can rely on the documentation to understand how to use the API effectively.

Common Types of API Protocols

API protocols form the foundation of how data is exchanged and communicated between software systems. In the world of web services and APIs, two prominent protocols stand out: SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) and REST (Representational State Transfer). Let’s delve into each of these protocols to understand their key characteristics and use cases:

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol):

  • SOAP is a protocol for exchanging structured information in web services using XML.
  • It relies on a predefined set of rules for message formatting and communication.
  • Known for its strict standards and support for complex operations, it’s commonly used in enterprise-level applications.

REST (Representational State Transfer):

  • REST is an architectural style for designing networked applications.
  • It uses standard HTTP methods (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) and operates on resources represented as URLs.
  • Known for its simplicity and flexibility, it’s widely used for web APIs, including those serving web and mobile applications.

HTTPS Methods You Need to Know About

response codes
Response Codes

When it comes to interacting with web APIs, understanding the core HTTP methods is crucial. Let’s dive into the essential HTTP methods you need to know for seamless communication with APIs:


  • This method is all about retrieval. It requests data from a specified resource.
  • It’s commonly used for fetching information from a server without making any changes to the resource.


  • POST is all about submission. It sends data to be processed to a specified resource.
  • This method is often used when you need to create a new resource or submit form data to a server.


  • PUT is for updating. It sends data to a specific resource to replace or update it.
  • Use PUT when you want to modify an existing resource entirely, making it a powerful tool for updates.


  • DELETE is the method for, well, deleting a specified resource.
  • It’s used to remove a resource from the server, providing an important way to manage data.

Response Codes in API Testing

In the world of API testing, understanding response codes is akin to reading the language of the digital realm. Here’s a concise guide to the response codes you’ll frequently encounter:

1XX – Informational:

  • These codes provide information about the ongoing request’s status.
  • Typically, they signal that the request is received and understood, but further action may be required.

2XX – Successful:

  • The coveted 2XX codes signify successful request processing.
  • A 200 OK, for instance, indicates that the request was processed without issues, delivering the expected results.

3XX – Redirection:

  • These codes indicate that the client must take additional steps to complete the request.
  • Commonly seen is the 301 Moved Permanently, which redirects the client to a new URL.

4XX – Client Errors:

  • When something goes amiss on the client side, these codes come into play.
  • A 404 Not Found, for instance, means the requested resource couldn’t be located on the server.

5XX – Server Errors:

  • Server errors signal that something has gone awry on the server’s end.
  • A 500 Internal Server Error is a catch-all for various server-related issues.

Best Practices to Follow When Testing APIs

API testing is a vital component of software quality assurance. To ensure robust and reliable APIs, it’s crucial to follow best practices. Here, we explore six key practices:

  • Call Sequencing: After standalone validation, consider the sequencing of API calls. Ensure that APIs interact seamlessly, maintaining data integrity and functionality.
  • Parameterization: Implement parameterization to test various inputs and scenarios, uncovering potential issues and ensuring your API can handle diverse data.
  • Delete Operation Handling: Pay special attention to how your API handles delete operations. Ensure it behaves as expected, and data deletion is secure and controlled.
  • Scenario-Based Grouping: Organize your API requests based on scenarios. This makes testing more systematic, helping you identify and address specific use-case issues.
  • Automation: Whenever possible, automate your API tests. Automation streamlines testing, detects issues early, and accelerates the testing process.
  • CI/CD Integration: Integrate API testing into your CI/CD pipeline. This ensures continuous testing, reducing the likelihood of bugs slipping through to production.

Real Time Challenges in API Testing

API testing brings its own set of real-time challenges. Here’s a quick overview of these hurdles and how to tackle them:

  • Initial Setup: Setting up API testing environments can be complex. Streamline this by using containerization tools like Docker for consistent setups.
  • Documentation: Inadequate or unclear API documentation can slow testing. Collaborate closely with developers to ensure comprehensive documentation.
  • Without User Interface: APIs lack user interfaces, making testing less intuitive. Leverage API testing tools and scripts to interact with APIs directly.
  • Tool Selection: Choosing the right testing tools is critical. Assess your project’s needs and opt for tools that align with your testing objectives.
  • Error Handling: Robust error handling is essential. Test various error scenarios to ensure your API gracefully handles unexpected situations.
  • Drafting Scenarios: Creating effective test scenarios requires careful planning. Understand the API’s functionality and potential use cases to draft meaningful scenarios.
  • Coding Skills: Some testing tools may require coding skills. Invest in training or consider user-friendly tools to accommodate testers with various skill levels.


So, we’ve delved into the essence of API testing, equipping you to elevate software quality. APIs are the linchpin of modern software, connecting applications and services. Understanding the types of APIs, such as open, private, and partner APIs, empowers you to harness their full potential.

You’ve gained insights into SOAP and REST protocols, HTTP methods, and response codes, essential for effective API communication. Follow best practices like call sequencing, parameterization, and automation to streamline your testing process.

While real-time challenges exist, from initial setup to handling APIs without user interfaces, your newfound knowledge ensures you’re ready to conquer them. In a rapidly evolving tech landscape, mastering API testing is your ticket to software excellence.

We recreated this blog using the content from Pricilla Bilavendran‘s API Testing Workshop at The Test Tribe’s 4th Virtual meetup. Pricilla is a Postman Supernova, and a long time contributor to the testing community. She is also an instructor to the course Learn API Testing using Postman on our learning platform Thrive EdSchool. If you are looking for a solid resource to master the Postman tool for API testing, we urge you to check it out. You can connect her on the social-media by following the links below.

UI Automation Testing with Playwright

Today’s topic revolves around “UI Automation Testing with Playwright.” As we delve deeper into Playwright, we quickly realize that its utility extends beyond just UI automation testing; it encompasses a wide range of automation capabilities. So, let’s explore why Playwright is a unique and compelling automation tool worth considering. We will also delve into creating frameworks using Playwright and more.

To kick things off, let’s start with a lighthearted icebreaker—a quick comic.

test automation comic

In the comic, Dilbert approaches his manager, proudly declaring, “Can I show you something I’m proud of? I automated a task that used to take me 3 hours.” The manager quips, “Well, well, isn’t that just like you?” Dilbert questions, “Are you implying I’m resourceful?” To which the manager humorously retorts, “No, lazy.”

Bill Gates once famously stated that he prefers to delegate tasks to lazy individuals because they tend to find ways to automate processes, resulting in increased efficiency. We all engage in automation, using various tools such as scripting tools, UI automation tools, and API automation tools, which can either make us resourceful or, as Bill Gates suggests, a little lazy – depending on our perspective.

So in today’s Playwright tutorial, we’ll get an understanding of what Playwright is, along with some intriguing trivia about Playwright, and a comparison between Playwright and Selenium, with Selenium being one of the most prominent UI automation tools in widespread use. We’ll also explore the distinctions between the two and conduct an in-depth examination of the Playwright’s features. 

All of this will be followed by a comprehensive demo that covers various aspects of Playwright, including how to get started, and its advantages in both UI and API automation. Additionally, we’ll provide some handy tips on how to persuade your manager to adopt Playwright if you find the demo inspiring. Lastly, we’ll share some valuable learning resources to assist you in getting started with Playwright after today’s session. So, without further delay, let’s dive in!

What is a Playwright?

At its core, Playwright is an open-source Node.js library developed by Microsoft. It is open-sourced, making it accessible to the community.

image 2

Open source Node.js Library 

If you have experience with Puppeteer (which is essentially a library from Google), the same team transitioned to Microsoft to create Playwright. These experts are the masterminds behind this automation library.

End-to-end Test library

Playwright serves as a comprehensive end-to-end testing library. It enables you to conduct UI tests, craft API tests, and integrate them into your test-driven development process. Unlike typical UI automation tools primarily used post-deployment, Playwright offers broader utility.

Supported Languages

Playwright is compatible with JavaScript and TypeScript, with Microsoft strongly recommending TypeScript due to its association with the company. Playwright also provides support for Python, .NET, and Java. 

If your stack is based on Java and you wish to incorporate Playwright into your existing framework, it’s relatively straightforward to add the necessary dependencies and get started.

Support Browser Stacks

Regarding browser support, Playwright operates seamlessly on any Chromium or WebKit-supported browsers. It currently provides native support for Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. Notably, it does not support Internet Explorer (IE), which has already been phased out.

Mobile stack

Support for Android browsers in Playwright is somewhat limited and can be described as experimental. If you have a Chrome browser installed on an Android device and wish to conduct testing, you can proceed with it. 

Additionally, Playwright offers viewport support, allowing you to replicate whatever you observe on your Chrome screen. For instance, if you utilize the developer options in the Chrome screen and resize your window to evaluate progressive or responsive applications on iPhones or Android devices using developer tools, Playwright facilitates these actions seamlessly.

Test runner

Playwright comes with its own built-in Test Runner, which means you have the option to use it without relying on third-party Test Runners. However, it also offers compatibility with additional Test Runners like Cucumber, TestNG, and Junit. 

If you’re working with Java, you can utilize TestNG and Junit. For JavaScript and TypeScript, Cucumber already provides support. If you’re in the .NET ecosystem, you can opt for SpecFlow, and if you’re using Python, Behave is available as a Test Runner. This extensive range of supported Test Runners underscores the comprehensive nature of Playwright’s capabilities.

Playwright Vs Selenium: A Quick Comparison

LocatorsLocators with native wait(s)Locators with additional waits
API Testing SupportYesNo
Screenshots & VideosYesYes
In-built runnerYesNo
AssertionsInternal (Jest) . Support for externalExternal
Stability of TestsHighly StableDepends on the framework
TechHeadless architectureJSON on the framework
Parallel testsIn-builtSelenium Grid or Runner supported
ContainerDocker images availableDocker images available
Debugging ToolsPW inspector, VS Code debugger, Trace viewerIDE supported third party tools.
Comparison Table: Playwright vs Selenium


The most significant distinction when comparing Playwright vs. Selenium, which is immediately noticeable, pertains to the locators equipped with native waits. While you have the option to configure global waits if necessary, the locators themselves possess default waiting mechanisms. Consequently, you need not be overly concerned about the occurrence of flaky tests or unpredictable inconsistencies that may arise during testing in specific environments. 

Depending on the system you intend to test, you can establish global waits to ensure that the DOM is fully loaded. This process involves locating XPaths or CSS selectors and awaiting the appearance of the desired element. Furthermore, it encompasses waiting for events to be triggered on the element and for those events to be successfully executed. 

This comprehensive approach ensures that the testing process does not proceed hastily, offering robust support for mitigating flakiness in your overall UI testing. While Selenium has introduced various dependable locator add-ons, Playwright distinguishes itself by providing built-in locator support with integrated waits.

API Testing Support

API testing support is one of the hallmarks of Playwright. Playwright offers native support for API testing, allowing you to make API calls and conduct your tests seamlessly. One of its significant advantages is the ability to construct hybrid frameworks. This capability proves invaluable when you need to perform actions in the UI while simultaneously running background tasks asynchronously. 

You can use Playwright’s API support to make asynchronous API calls within your code and validate the results alongside your tests. Alternatively, if you simply require a plain vanilla API testing test suite, Playwright can accommodate that too.

Screenshots & Videos

Both Playwright and Selenium provide support for capturing screenshots and videos during test execution.

In-Built Runner

Selenium allows for the use of external runners like TestNG, JUnit, or Cucumber, whereas Playwright comes with an integrated runner. As a result, you don’t need to go through the process of integrating a third-party runner. However, it’s important to note that Playwright does offer support for third-party runners if you prefer to use them.


Playwright includes internal assertions using Jest support. You can use these assertion functions within the Playwright library, but it also allows for the use of external assertion libraries if desired.

Test Stability

As previously mentioned, the use of native locators and their corresponding native waits in Playwright significantly enhances test stability. Unlike Selenium, where you may need to create a framework to address these issues, Playwright handles these aspects by default. 

Your primary concern may revolve around adjusting or fine-tuning timeouts associated with these locators, a task that can be accomplished either at a global or local level.


Playwright primarily operates in a headless architecture by default, while Selenium relies on a JSON wire protocol. Playwright can also run in headed mode and leverages Chrome DevTools for test execution control.

Parallel Tests

Parallel testing is inherently integrated into Playwright, whereas with Selenium, you may need to rely on tools like Selenium Grid or utilize runner-supported functions such as those available in TestNG. 

In Playwright, by default, tests are executed across multiple threads. Each test operates within its dedicated thread, allowing you to concurrently run multiple tests across different threads. Additionally, Playwright offers customizations to execute tests sequentially if that better suits your requirements.


There is default support for Docker images. You can simply launch a Docker image and start running your tests within it as well.

Debugging Tools

Some of the built-in debugging tools include the Playwright inspector and Trace viewer. Since Playwright is a Microsoft open-source product, it also includes a VS Code debugger.

Unique Features of Playwright

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Browser Support

Playwright boasts several notable features, with one of the most significant being its support for multiple processes and the ability to operate in an Incognito browser context. This feature allows you to configure a context for a specific web application in Incognito mode, facilitating seamless validation. The advantage here is that it doesn’t retain any cookies or local data during testing, making it secure for use in public browser spaces like Sauce Labs or Amazon.

API Testing

Regarding API testing, as previously mentioned, Playwright offers robust support. If you require a hybrid test involving asynchronous requests to validate specific aspects, Playwright readily accommodates such scenarios.

Network Monitoring and Mocking

The other cool feature is that you have access to network monitoring and mocking, which automatically monitor network calls during test execution. With the latest Playwright version, you can even store the entire HTTP request data in a HAR file for future test replay.

Additionally, Playwright enables the creation of API routes for conducting UI tests in a TDD manner. If you need to establish a mock API route, Playwright offers this functionality out of the box, eliminating the necessity to interact with a live server. Playwright can seamlessly emulate the server, streamlining your testing procedures.


We have already discussed Auto-Waiting. Playwright incorporates various contexts for Auto-Waiting, including checking if the DOM is attached, if elements are visible, if elements remain stable, or if they disappear during testing. It also tracks events, ensuring they are actioned as expected, and monitors elements that need to be enabled throughout the test.


Playwright has limited compatibility with the Android Chrome browser and offers support for various other mobile browsers.


Parallelism is seamlessly integrated into Playwright, allowing each test file to execute in a dedicated worker thread. You have the flexibility to limit the number of workers in Playwright and specify the desired order in which tests should run.


Playwright provides useful hooks, including BeforeAll, AfterAll, BeforeEach, and AfterEach hooks. These hooks are readily available to streamline the execution of specific functions before running a test suite or after each scenario.

Playwright Demo

Now it’s time to take this Playwright tutorial to another level and check the demo! Watch it here:

How to Convince Your Manager?

If you like this Playwright tutorial, then you must also want some tips on how to convince your manager to use Playwright for your projects. So here are some tips –

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Start with a Sample:

Begin by demonstrating the Playwright’s ease of setup and initiation, as exemplified in the earlier presentation.

Highlight Unified API and UI Testing 

Emphasize the advantage of performing both API and UI testing within a single library. Unlike Selenium, which often requires the use of additional libraries like REST Assured for API testing, Playwright streamlines the process.

Consider Project Type:

Depending on your project type, tailor your approach. For Greenfield projects, advocate for starting with Playwright from the outset. In the case of Brownfield projects where existing systems are in place, suggest introducing Playwright for new modules. Playwright’s Java support allows for seamless integration into existing repositories.

Leverage Microsoft’s Backing

Playwright benefits from substantial support due to its association with Microsoft. The extensive resources, including blogs and YouTube Playwright tutorials, provide valuable assistance and insights.

Provide Real-World Examples

Share success stories from other companies that have already embraced Playwright. Our Discord community is a valuable resource, where you can gather practical examples from fellow Playwright users.

Extensive Documentation

Highlight the comprehensive documentation available for Playwright, making it easy for your team to get started and troubleshoot. Additionally, Stack Overflow provides a robust support network for both Playwright and TypeScript.

Wide Language Support

Remind your manager that Playwright supports multiple key programming languages, enhancing its versatility and compatibility with your team’s preferences.

Where to Start

Thrive EdSchool 

  • Start here for docs and code examples

Youtube Resources

  • LetCode with Koushik
  • Cucumber and Playwright with Tally Barak
  • Automate Together

Playwright Cheat sheet 

Other resources

  • Cucumber reading resource Lan Routledge


1. Does Playwright support Windows applications, or is it only for the web and APIs?

Playwright is primarily designed for web and API testing. It does not support Windows applications.

2. What programming language should we learn to work with Playwright, Java, or JavaScript?

Playwright provides support for multiple languages, including TypeScript, JavaScript, and Java. However, it is recommended to learn TypeScript and use it with Playwright. TypeScript offers extensive resources and support for Playwright, and it is relatively easy to learn. If you already know JavaScript, you can take a quick refresher course in TypeScript and then dive into using Playwright.

3. What is a “vanilla” test suite?

The context of “vanilla” in this Playwright tutorial refers to the default or out-of-the-box test suite that comes with your automation tools or is generated when using scaffold projects. It represents the basic and uncustomized configuration or setup of your testing environment.